LONELINESS AS A NOVEL PUBLIC PROBLEM - OUTLINES TO CREATE AN "ANTI-LONELINESS" POLICY
Keywords:public problem, loneliness, social isolation, anti-loneliness policy, EU, USA
The purpose of this paper is to consider loneliness as a public (policy) problem and to review current "anti-loneliness" policies in Europe and the world, in order to offer guidelines for anti-loneliness policy in a particular area. The approach to this issue is based on methods characteristic for the public policy science. Firstly, the paper explains what qualifies some situation to be perceived as a public problem. It has been shown that loneliness throughout Europe and the world is a serious public problem and that various measures (policies) are taken against it. The paper presents current knowledge and experience on loneliness as a public problem. The final part of the paper analyzes the common elements of anti-loneliness and anti-isolation policies (worldwide) and offers guidelines for the development of anti-loneliness policy in areas where such policies have yet to be adopted.
Age UK, (2018). Loneliness and isolation - understanding the difference and why it matters, Care Connect, The University of Sheffield and Age UK, Available at: https://www.ageuk.org.uk/globalassets/age-uk/documents/reports-and-publications/reports-and-briefings/loneliness/rb_feb2018_180208_careconnect_ageuk_loneliness_research_article_isolation.pdf [Accessed 10.06. 2022].
ARENT, H. (1998). Izvori totalitarizma /The origins of totalitarianism/, Belgrade, Feministička izdavačka kuća.
BIRNSTENGEL, G. (2020). What Has the U.K.'s Minister of Loneliness Done to Date?, Nextavenue. Available at: https://www.nextavenue.org/uk-minister-of-loneliness/ , [Accessed 12.06. 2022].
BRUCE, L., WU, J., LUSTIG, S., RUSSELL, D., NEMECEK, D. (2019), Loneliness in the United States: A 2018 National Panel Survey of Demographic, Structural, Cognitive, and Behavioral Characteristics, in: American Journal of Health Promotion, Vol. 33(8), pp. 1123-1133. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333822508_Loneliness_in_the_United_States_A_2018_National_Panel_Survey_of_Demographic_Structural_Cognitive_and_Behavioral_Characteristics [Accessed 10.06. 2022].
CACIOPPO, J., CACIOPPO, S. (2018). The Growing Problem of Loneliness, in: The Lancet, Vol. (391), No. (10119), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30142-9.
CIGNA, (2018), Loneliness Index - Survey of 20,000 Americans Examining Behaviors Driving Loneliness in the United States, Available at: https://www.cigna.com/assets/docs/newsroom/loneliness-survey-2018-full-report.pdf, [Accessed 10.06. 2022].
Coalition to End Social Isolation & Loneliness, (2021). 2021-2022 Policy priorities, addressing the impact of social isolation & loneliness for all Americans, Available: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5cb224c5aadd34703fcd10b6/t/60801943bb54e72b94d6f098/1619007812711/CESIL+2021-2022+Policy+Priorities+_FINAL.pdf, [Accessed 12.06. 2022].
Community Fund (2021). Local Connections Fund – Round 2, Available at: https://www.tnlcommunityfund.org.uk/funding/programmes/local-connections-fund-round-2, [Accessed 12.06. 2022].
DUNN, W. (2018), Public Policy Analysis - An Integrated Approach, New York and London: Routledge.
DW, (2021). Japan: 'Minister of loneliness' tackles mental health crisis, by: Julian Ryall, Available at: https://www.dw.com/en/japan-minister-of-loneliness-tackles-mental-health-crisis/a-57311880, [Accessed 12.06. 2022].
DYE, T. (2017), Understanding Public Policy, New York, Amsterdam, London, Madrid Milan, Munich, Paris: Pearson.
Euronews, (2019). Lonely in Berlin: German capital mulls Commissioner for Loneliness, by: Viola Stefanello. Available at: https://www.euronews.com/2019/10/18/lonely-in-berlin-german-capital-mulls-minister-for-loneliness, [Accessed 12.06. 2022].
European Commission, (2018), Loneliness – an unequally shared burden in Europe, JRC Working Papers in Economics and Finance, Available at: https://knowledge4policy.ec.europa.eu/publication/loneliness-%E2%80%93-unequally-shared-burden-europe_en, [Accessed 10.06. 2022].
European Commission, (2021). Loneliness in the EU Insights from surveys and online media data, JRC science for policy report, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, Available at: https://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC125873, [Accessed 10.06. 2022].
GILC, (2022). Position Statements on Addressing Social Isolation, Loneliness,and the Power of Human Connection, Global Initiative on Loneliness and Connection. Available at: https://www.gilc.global/_files/ugd/410bdf_74fffc2d18984b0e8217288b1b12d199.pdf, [Accessed 12.06. 2022].
Health Affairs Forefront, (2021). Legislation Can't Solve Loneliness, But It Can Help, by: Kasley Killam, Available at: https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/forefront.20210908.63021/full/, [Accessed 12.06. 2022].
HM Government (2018). A connected society A strategy for tackling loneliness – laying the foundations for change, London, Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/936725/6.4882_DCMS_Loneliness_Strategy_web_Update_V2.pdf, [Accessed 12.06. 2022].
JEFFREY, K., ABDALLAH, S., MICHAELSON, J. (2017), The cost of loneliness to UK employers, New Economics Foundation. Available at: https://neweconomics.org/uploads/files/NEF_COST-OF-LONELINESS_DIGITAL-Final.pdf, [Accessed 12.06. 2022].
KUNG, C., KUNZ, J., SHIELDS, M. (2021), Economic Aspects of Loneliness in Australia, in: Australian Economic Review, Vol.(54), No (1), pp. 147–163. Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/1467-8462.12414, [Accessed 12.06. 2022].
MIHALOPOULOS, C., LE, L., CHATTERTON, M., BUCHOLC, J., HOLT LUNSTAD, J., LIM, M., ENGEL, L. (2019), The economic costs of loneliness: a review of cost‑of‑illness and economic evaluation studies, in: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, Vol. (55), pp. 823-826. Available at: https://www.academia.edu/39576717/The_economic_costs_of_loneliness_a_review_of_cost_of_illness_and_economic_evaluation_studies, [Accessed 12.06. 2022].
National Institute on Aging, (2021). Loneliness and Social Isolation — Tips for Staying Connected, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Available at: https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/loneliness-and-social-isolation-tips-staying-connected [Accessed 10.06. 2022].
Neue Zürcher Zeitung, (2018). Braucht die Schweiz ein «Ministerium für Einsamkeit»?, Available at: https://www.nzz.ch/leserdebatte/braucht-die-schweiz-ein-ministerium-fuer-einsamkeit-ld.1352797?reduced=true, [Accessed 12.06. 2022].
Neueste Nachrichten, (2022). Initiativen gegen Einsamkeit sollen sich bundesweit vernetzen, by: Alexei Makartsev, Available at: https://bnn.de/nachrichten/politik/vereinsamung-soziales-problem-iniative-bundesregierung-netzwerk-foerderung, [Accessed 12.06. 2022].
PATTON, C., SAWICKI, D., CLARK, J. (2016), Basic Methods of PolicyAnalysis and Planning, New York and London: Routledge.
Renew Democracy Iniative, (2020). Is Loneliness a Threat to America? Available at: https://rdi.org/is-loneliness-a-threat-to-america/ , [Accessed 12.06. 2022].
Social Impacts Bond (2015), Investing to tackle loneliness - a discussion paper, Social finance, London. Available at: https://www.socialfinance.org.uk/sites/default/files/publications/investing_to_tackle_loneliness.pdf, [Accessed 12.06. 2022].
UK Government, (2021). Loneliness minister: "It's more important than ever to take action", Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport and Baroness Barran MBE. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/loneliness-minister-its-more-important-than-ever-to-take-action, [Accessed 12.06. 2022].
VALTORTA, NK. HANRATTY, B. (2016). Loneliness, social isolation and health: ‘what’s the problem represented to be?’ in the United Kingdom? in: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health(1979-), Vol. (70), pp. A69–A69. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26383646.
Ways & Means Comimittee, (2021). Neal, Wyden, Casey, Bonamici introduce legislation to reauthorize and modernize elder justice programs, Available at: https://waysandmeans.house.gov/media-center/press-releases/neal-wyden-casey-bonamici-introduce-legislation-reauthorize-and, [Accessed 12.06. 2022].
World Economic Forum, (2020). Sweden is fighting loneliness by housing older and younger generations together, by: Sean Fleming. Available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/03/sweden-loneliness-housing-generations-elderly-youth/, [Accessed 12.06. 2022].